Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian https://www.jtp.ub.ac.id/index.php/jtp <h4><img src="https://jtp.ub.ac.id/public/site/images/admin/sertifikat-jtp-2.jpg" alt="" width="1349" height="948" /></h4> <p><br /><br />Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian published by the Faculty of Agricultural Technology of the University of Brawijaya to disseminate the results of research conducted by researchers from inside and outside the Faculty of Agricultural Technology Universitas Brawijaya. This journal containing writing of research results which are within the scope of scientific disciplines related to the Agricultural Technology Sciences to support the development of science and technology and national development.</p> <p>Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian published quarterly three times in April, August and December.</p> <p>P-ISSN <a href="http://issn.pdii.lipi.go.id/issn.cgi?daftar&amp;1180430195&amp;1&amp;&amp;" target="_blank" rel="noopener">1411-5131</a> | E-ISSN <a href="http://issn.pdii.lipi.go.id/issn.cgi?daftar&amp;1458532213&amp;1&amp;&amp;" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2528-2794</a></p> Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya en-US Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian 1411-5131 Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal</li></ol></ol> IMPROVING EDIBLE FILM QUALITY USING MODIFIED WATER YAM (Dioscorea alata L) STARCH https://www.jtp.ub.ac.id/index.php/jtp/article/view/963 <p> The existed edible films made of water yam starch tend to have a low quality which is indicated by high WVTR value and low mechanical strength. Addition of modified starch can decrease the WVTR value and improve the mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to obtain the ratio of starch paste volume to ethanol volume which produces modified water yam starch and to improve the quality of the edible film by adding modified water yam starch. This research was conducted in 2 stages, which are the modification of water yam starch using the precipitation method and the making of edible films using several levels of modified water yam starch concentration. The first stage of the study was designed to produce modified starch using the treatment of the ratio of starch paste volume to ethanol volume. There are 5 treatment ratios used, which were 1:5, 1:7.5, 1:10, 1:12.5, and 1:15. The results showed that the different ratios of starch paste volume to ethanol volume resulted in different sizes of modified starches. The ethanol volume ratio of 1:5 resulted in a granular starch with the most damage in its morphology, and the smallest particle size detected was 1.135x1.767 µ, with the yield of modified starch was 80.5%. The addition of modified water yam starch of as much as 20%, which was modified using a ratio of paste volume to ethanol volume of 1:5, succeeded in improving the quality of the edible film of water yam starch by reducing the value of the water vapor transmission rate and increasing the compressive compressive strength.</p> Ulyarti Indriyani Rahayu Suseno Siti Nursela Hesti Megawati Irma Rahmayani Nazarudin Copyright (c) 2022 Ulyarti Ulyarti http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 23 2 89 100 10.21776/ub.jtp.2022.023.02.1 PENGEMBANGAN PRODUK BUBUK TOMAT DENGAN PENGERING KABINET MENGGUNAKAN ENKAPSULAN MALTODEKSTRIN DAN NATRIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE https://www.jtp.ub.ac.id/index.php/jtp/article/view/1084 <p> Buah tomat adalah buah yang rentan mengalami kerusakan. Untuk mengatasi kerugian akibat kerusakan, maka buah tomat dapat diolah menjadi bubuk. Salah satu kelebihan bentuk bubuk adalah mudah untuk diaplikasikan pada berbagai olahan pangan. Pembuatan bubuk tomat memerlukan proses pengeringan. Untuk membantu proses pengeringan berlangsung cepat dan dapat mempertahankan komponen aktif di dalamnya, maka diperlukan penyalut atau enkapsulan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti pengaruh jenis enkapsulan <em>Natrium Carboxymethyl Cellulose </em>(Na-CMC) dan maltodekstrin serta perbedaan konsentrasinya terhadap sifat fisikokimia bubuk tomat yang dihasilkan. Pada penelitian ini parameter yang diinvestigasi adalah kadar air, higroskopisitas, kadar fenol, aktivitas antioksidan, warna, dan nilai pH. Untuk analisis statistik, dilakukan uji ANOVA pada α = 5% dan uji lanjutan <em>Duncan’s Multiple Range Test </em>(DMRT). Dari hasil investigasi, diketahui jenis enkapsulan yang bebeda berpengaruh nyata terhadap seluruh parameter. Perbedaan konsentrasi Na-CMC (2,5%; 5%; 7,5%) berpengaruh pada rentang kadar air yang dihasilkan yaitu 1,43-3,17%, higroskopisitas (19,35-20,65%), kadar fenol (203,18-613,41 mg GAE/kg bahan), aktivitas antioksidan (43,42-87,27% penangkapan radikal/RSA), dan warna yaitu <em>lightness </em><em>(</em>48,1-55,7); <em>chroma </em><em>(</em>22,5-25,8); ⁰<em>hue</em> (39,9-40,7), serta pH (5,70-6,18). Sementara itu untuk maltodekstrin, perbedaan konsentrasi (6%, 12%, 18%) menghasilkan rentang kadar air 3,40-4,54%, higroskopisitas 18,55-19,16%, kadar fenol 345,23-795,23 mg GAE/kg bahan, aktivitas antioksidan 57,33-88,67% penangkapan radikal/RSA, warna yaitu <em>lightness </em>52,1-58,6; <em>chroma </em>28,7-45,8; ⁰<em>hue</em> 41,3-47,8, serta pH 5,30-5,55</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> Tomato is a fruit susceptible to damage resulting in a postharvest loss. Tomatoes can be processed into powder to reduce the potential risk of damage. One of the advantages of the powder form is that it is easy to be applied to various food products. The production of tomato powder requires a drying process. A coating or encapsulation is needed to improve the drying process's efficiency and protect its active components. This study aimed to examine the effect of the encapsulant types of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Na-CMC) and maltodextrin and their concentration variation on the physicochemical properties of the tomato powder. This study investigated moisture content, hygroscopicity, phenol content, antioxidant activity, color, and pH value. For statistical analysis, the ANOVA test was performed at = 5% and continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The investigation results show that the different encapsulants have a significant effect on all parameters. The difference in the concentration of Na-CMC (2.5%; 5%; 7.5%) has an effect on the moisture content (1.43-3.17%), hygroscopicity (19.35-20.65%), phenol content (203.18-613.41 mg GAE/kg material), antioxidant activity (43.42-87.27% radical scavenging/RSA), and color which are lightness (48.1-55.7), chroma (22.5 -25.8), and hue (39.9-40.7), and also pH (5.70-6.18). Meanwhile for maltodextrin, the difference in concentration (6%, 12%, 18%) resulted in a moisture content range of 3.40-4.54%, hygroscopicity 18.55-19.16%, phenol content 345.23-795.23 mg GAE/kg sample, antioxidant activity 57.33-88.67% radical scavenging/RSA, colors, which are lightness 52.1-58.6; chroma 28.7-45.8; hue 41.3-47.8, and also pH 5.30-5.55.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Ricky Gonardi Erni Setijawaty Ignasius Radix A.P. Jati Copyright (c) 2022 Ricky Gonardi, Erni Setijawaty, Ignasius Radix A.P. Jati http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 23 2 101 118 10.21776/ub.jtp.2022.023.02.2 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BABY JAVA ORANGE PEEL PECTIN (Citrus sinensis) AND CORN STARCH-BASED EDIBLE FILM WITH GLYCEROL PLASTICIZER https://www.jtp.ub.ac.id/index.php/jtp/article/view/988 <p><em> Baby Java</em> orange is one sweet orange variant with a high pectin content on its skin. Pectin and starch are examples of the main ingredients in making edible films. Besides its economical price, corn starch is also commonly used in preparing edible films as the biopolymer material that can produce a matrix used for the edible film preparation process. The addition of glycerol plasticizers can improve the structure of the film. This study aimed to determine the effect of pectin concentration of <em>Baby Java</em> orange peel and glycerol on the physicochemical characteristics of the resulting edible film and determine the formulation with the highest value in the manufacture of the edible film according to the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors. The first factor is <em>Baby Java</em> skin pectin concentration (15%, 25%, and 35% %b b/b starch), while the second factor is glycerol concentration (10%, 20%, and 30% v/v). The edible films were then analyzed for their moisture content, thickness, solubility, color, tensile strength, and water vapor permeability. The results show that the concentration of pectin and glycerol with the addition of corn starch significantly affects the parameters of moisture content, solubility, thickness, tensile strength, color, and water vapor permeability tests. The optimum formulation in the preparation of edible films according to JIS was the formulation with the addition of 15% pectin and 20% glycerol, which resulted in 6.24% of moisture content, 76.57% solubility, 0.25 mm thickness, 0.50 MPa tensile strength, 54.98 lightness, 3.66 blueness, -1.48 appearances and 1.42 g.mm/m<sup>2</sup>.h.kPa water vapor permeability</p> Lilis Suryani Karlan Safinta Nurindra Rahmadhia Copyright (c) 2022 Lilis Suryani Karlan, Safinta Nurindra Rahmadhia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 23 2 119 128 10.21776/ub.jtp.2022.023.02.3 ISOTERM ADSORPSI SERTA PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN TEPUNG POLONG-POLONGAN INDIGENOUS INDONESIA https://www.jtp.ub.ac.id/index.php/jtp/article/view/1072 <p> Kabau, Jengkol, Petai dan Lamtoro merupakan komoditas polong-polongan <em>indigenous </em>Indonesia yang telah banyak dibudidayakan dan dikonsumsi sejak zaman dahulu, berkembang lama dan dikenal masyarakat di suatu daerah tertentu di Indonesia. Banyaknya kandungan gizi pada komoditas ini sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi produk baru seperti tepung. Tepung merupakan salah satu produk dengan kadar air rendah sehingga dapat bertahan lama apabila disimpan pada suhu ruang. Namun, tepung merupakan bahan pangan yang mempunyai kemampuan menyerap dan melepaskan sebagian air selama penyimpanan yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan mutu tepung. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan permodelan kurva ISL yang tepat serta pendugaan umur simpan pada tepung Kabau, Jengkol, Petai dan Lamtoro dengan proses perebusan sebagai pengolahan pendahuluan. Ruang lingkup pengujian yaitu penentuan kadar air setimbang dengan menggunakan metode gravimetri statis. Penentuan model dan ketepatan kurva ISL, serta perhitungan pendugaan umur simpan sampel menggunakan persamaan Labuza (1982). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa GAB merupakan permodelan kurva yang hampir tepat dalam menggambarkan pola penyerapan uap air sampel. Perhitungan pendugaan umur simpan sampel bahan segar memiliki umur simpan lebih panjang dibandingkan sampel dengan perebusan. Hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk pengembangan produk awetan dari keempat komoditas yang digunakan. Pembuatan produk awetan dapat memudahkan konsumen untuk tetap mengkonsumsi komoditas ini ketika terjadi kelangkaan bahan.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> Kabau, Jengkol, Petai and Lamtoro are indigenous Indonesian legume commodities have been widely cultivated and consumed since ancient times, have been growing for a long time and are known to the public in certain areas. The high nutritional content of this commodity can be process to a new product such as flour. Flour is a product with low moisture content so it can last a long time when stored at room temperature. However, flour is a product that has the ability to absorb and release moisture content during storage which can cause changes in flour quality. Therefore, this study aims to determine the appropriate ISL curve modelling and estimate the shelf life of Kabau, Jengkol, Petai and Lamtoro flours by pre-boiled processing. The scope of the test is to determine the equilibrium moisture content using the oven method. Determination of the model and the accuracy of the ISL curve and the calculation of the estimated shelf life of the sample using the Labuza equation (1982). The results showed that GAB is a curve model that almost accurately describes the sample's water vapour absorption pattern. Calculation of the estimated shelf life of samples with fresh ingredients has a longer shelf life than samples with pre-boiled treatment. The results of this study can be used as a reference for the development of preserved products from the four commodities used. The manufacture of preserved products can make it easier for consumers to continue to consume this commodity when there is a shortage of materials.</p> Rosiana Khoirunnissa Andriati Ningrum Aprilia Fitriani Supriyadi Supriyadi Copyright (c) 2022 Rosiana Khoirunnissa, Andriati Ningrum, Aprilia Fitriani, Supriyadi Supriyadi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 23 2 129 138 10.21776/ub.jtp.2022.023.02.4 CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID LAUNDRY SOAP BASED ON LERAK (Sapindus rarak DC.) https://www.jtp.ub.ac.id/index.php/jtp/article/view/992 <p> Lerak (<em>Sapindus rarak</em> DC.) is one of the fruits with a main active compound called saponin. Saponins function as natural surfactants with foaming and emulsifying properties. Lerak in Indonesia is widely used as a traditional detergent. Using lerak essence as a detergent, batik washing can be done well without fading colors and is more environmentally friendly. Lerak essence can be applied as an additional component in preparing solid laundry soap. Adding lerak essence is to replace the anionic surfactant Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS). Therefore, the risk of pollution can be lowered, as well as keep batik cloth from easily fading out. This study was conducted using Randomized Block Design (RBD) with two factors, including the concentration of lerak essence (10%, 7.5%, and 5%) and NaOH molecules (0.5 mol and 0.375 mol). This study aimed to analyze the effect of variation in lerak essence concentration and NaOH molecular on the physicochemical properties of solid laundry soap. The results showed that the higher the concentration of lerak essence and NaOH molecules, the more it reduces the water content in solid laundry soap. Concentrations of 10% lerak essence and 0.5 mol NaOH molecules have the highest value for foam stability and the lowest value for moisture content. Among the tensile strength, pH, brightness level and yellowness level, the highest value was in the concentration of 7.5% lerak essence and 0.5 mol NaOH molecules. Treatments of the variation of lerak essence concentrations significantly affect pH, while the treatment of NaOH molecular variation significantly affects pH, tensile strength, foam stability, brightness level (L*) and yellowness level (b*)</p> La Choviya Hawa Aini Nurrachmani Bahari Anang Lastriyanto Copyright (c) 2022 La Choviya Hawa, STP., MP., Ph.D, Aini Nurrachmani Bahari, S.T, Ir. Anang Lastriyanto ,M.Si http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 23 2 139 150 10.21776/ub.jtp.2022.023.02.5 EFEK PENGOLAHAN KONVENSIONAL PADA KANDUNGAN GIZI DAN ANTI GIZI BIJI PETAI (Parkia speciosa Hassk.) https://www.jtp.ub.ac.id/index.php/jtp/article/view/1075 <p> Biji Petai (<em>Parkia speciosa</em> Hassk.) merupakan komoditas kacang-kacangan khas Indonesia dengan kandungan protein yang tinggi. Namun, biji Petai juga dikenal mengandung senyawa antigizi asam fitat, tanin dan tripsin <em>inhibitor</em> yang dapat menurunkan nilai cerna protein. Proses pengolahan konvensional kukus selama 10 menit, rebus selama 8 menit, dan goreng selama 2 menit dilakukan untuk menurunkan senyawa antigizi dan meningkatkan kecernaan protein biji Petai. Biji Petai yang digunakan untuk analisis adalah biji Petai bubuk yang telah dikeringkan menggunakan <em>freeze dryer. </em>Efek proses pengolahan divaluasi senyawa gizi, antigizi, dan nilai cerna protein <em>in vitro</em>. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh proses pengolahan kukus, rebus, dan goreng terhadap senyawa gizi (kadar air, protein, lemak, abu, dan karbohidrat), antigizi (asam fitat, tanin, serta tripsin <em>inhibitor</em>), dan kecernaan protein <em>in vitro</em> pada Petai. Penelitian dilakukan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Satu Faktor, yaitu jenis proses pengolahan. Data diolah dengan <em>One Way </em>ANOVA menggunakan aplikasi SPSS 2.1 dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%, kemudian dilanjutkan uji <em>Duncan </em>apabila terdapat beda nyata. Diperoleh hasil bahwa ketiga proses pengolahan tersebut signifikan menurunkan konsentrasi senyawa antigizi asam fitat, tanin, serta tripsin <em>inhibitor</em>. Proses perebusan merupakan proses pengolahan terbaik yang dapat menurunkan senyawa antigizi asam fitat sebesar 75%, tanin sebesar 49%, dan tripsin <em>inhibitor</em> sebesar 70%. Proses pengolahan kukus dan rebus secara signifikan meningkatkan nilai cerna protein <em>in vitro</em>, yaitu masing-masing sebanyak 0,84% dan 2,55%. Temuan ini dapat dijadikan referensi proses pengolahan bagi konsumen biji Petai di Indonesia untuk mendapatkan manfaat asupan protein dari biji Petai dengan maksimal.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> Petai seeds (Parkia speciosa Hassk) are a typical Indonesian legume commodity with high protein content. However, Petai seeds are also known to contain anti-nutritional compounds phytic acid, tannins, and trypsin inhibitors that can reduce protein digestibility. The conventional processing process was steamed for 10 min, boiled for 8 min, and fried for 2 min to reduce antioxidant compounds and increase the protein digestibility of Petai seeds. Petai seeds used for analysis are powdered Petai seeds that have been dried using a freeze dryer. The effects of the processing were evaluated for nutritional compounds, antinutrients, and protein digestibility values ​​in vitro. This study aims to determine the effect of steamed, boiled, and fried processing on nutritional compounds (water content, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrates), antinutrients (phytic acid, tannins, and trypsin inhibitors), and protein digestibility in vitro in Petai. The research was conducted with a one-factor completely randomized design, namely the type of processing. The data was processed by One Way ANOVA using the SPSS 2.1 application with a 95% confidence level, then continued with Duncan's test if there was a significant difference. The results showed that the three processing processes significantly reduced the concentration of anti-nutritional compounds phytic acid, tannins, and trypsin inhibitors. The boiling process is the best processing process that can reduce the antioxidant compounds of phytic acid by 75%, tannins by 49%, and trypsin inhibitors by 70%. Steamed and boiled processing significantly increased the protein digestibility in vitro, which were 0.84% ​​and 2.55%, respectively. This finding can be used as a reference for the processing process for consumers of Petai seeds in Indonesia to get the maximum benefit of protein intake from Petai seeds</p> Putri Maharani Umar Santoso Yasmin Aulia Rachma Aprilia Fitriani Supriyadi Supriyadi Copyright (c) 2022 Putri Maharani, Umar Santoso, Yasmin Aulia Rachma, Aprilia Fitriani, Supriyadi Supriyadi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 23 2 151 164 10.21776/ub.jtp.2022.023.02.6